Home / XML / History Markup Languages

History Markup Languages

What is a Markup language?

A set of labels that are embedded within text to distinguish individual elements or groups of elements for display or identification purposes. The labels are typically known as “tags”.
A markup language combines text and extra information about the text. The best-known markup language in modern use is HTML (HyperText Markup Language), one of the foundations of the World Wide Web. The extra information, for example about the text’s structure or presentation, is expressed using markup, which is intermingled with the primary text. Originally markup was used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.

For content identification, markup languages turn a text document into the equivalent of a database record in which individual data elements can be located for processing. For rendering, markup languages indicate where font and other layout changes start and stop.

History of Markup languages

A markup language combines text and extra information about the text. The extra information, for example about the text’s structure or presentation, is expressed using markup, which is intermingled with the primary text. The best-known markup language in modern use is HTML (HyperText Markup Language), one of the foundations of the World Wide Web. Originally markup was used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.

GenCode the 1st markup language!,

SGML is first widely used markup language of the era, but the GenCode is first markup language. Many would surprise to know that, because many people use to belive that SGML is 1st markup language.

GenCode

The idea of “markup languages” was apparently first presented in 1967, by William W. Tunnicliffe at a conference. Tunnicliffe would later lead the development of a standard called GenCode for the publishing industry. Book designer Stanley Fish also published theory along similar lines in the late 1960s. Brian Reid, in his 1980 thesis at Carnegie Mellon University, developed the theory and a working implementation of descriptive (or expressive) markup in actual use. However, IBM researcher Charles Goldfarb is more commonly seen today as the “father” of markup languages, because of his work on IBM GML, and then as chair of the International Organization for Standardization committee that developed SGML, the first widely used descriptive markup system.

Some early examples of markup languages available outside the publishing industry can be found in typesetting tools on Unix systems such as troff and nroff. In these systems, formatting commands were inserted into the document text so that typesetting software could format the text according to the editor’s specifications.

TeX

Another major publishing standard is TeX, created and continuously refined by Donald Knuth in the 1970s and 80s. TeX concentrated on detailed layout of text and font descriptions in order to typeset mathematical books in professional quality. This required Knuth to spend considerable time investigating the art of typesetting. However, TeX requires considerable skill from the user, so that it is mainly used in academia, where it is a de-facto standard in many scientific disciplines. A TeX macro package known as LaTeX provides a descriptive markup system on top of TeX, and is widely used.

SGML
Standard Generalized Markup Language

The first language to make a clear and clean distinction between structure and presentation was certainly Scribe, which was developed by Brian Reid and described in his doctoral thesis in 1980. Scribe influenced the development of Generalized Markup Language (GML)(later SGML) and is a direct ancestor to HTML and LaTeX.

SGML specified a syntax for including the markup in documents, as well as one for separately describing what tags were allowed, and where (the Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema)). This allowed authors to create and use any markup they wished, selecting tags that made the most sense to them and were named in their own natural languages. Thus, SGML is properly a meta-language, and many particular markup languages are derived from it. From the late 80s on, most substantial new markup languages have been based on SGML system, including for example TEI and DocBook. SGML was promulgated as an International Standard by International Organization for Standardization, ISO8879, in 1986.

SGML found wide acceptance and use in fields with very large-scale documentation requirements. However, it was generally found to be cumbersome and difficult to learn, a side effect of attempting to do too much and be too flexible.

Types of Markup

There are mainly three types of markup language: presentational markup, procedural markup, and descriptive markup.

Presentational Markup

Presentational markup is an attempt to deduce document structure from cues in the encoding. For example, in a text file, the title of a document might be preceded by several newlines and/or spaces, thus suggesting leading spacing and centering. Word-processing and desktop publishing products sometimes attempt to infer structure from such conventions, but, as the enormous variety of Wikiplain-text conventions prove, this is, as of yet, an unresolved problem.

Procedural markup

Procedural markup has been widely used in professional publishing applications, where professional typographers can be expected to learn the languages required.Procedural markup is typically also focused on the presentation of text, but is usually visible to the user editing the text file, and is expected to be interpreted by software in the order in which it appears. To format a title, a succession of formatting directives would be inserted into the file immediately before the title’s text, instructing software to switch into centered display mode, then enlarge and embolden the typeface. The title text would be followed by directives to reverse these effects; in more advanced systems macros or a stack model make this less tedious. In most cases, the procedural markup capabilities comprise a Turing-complete programming language. Examples of procedural-markup systems include nroff, troff, TeX and Lout.

Descriptive markup

Descriptive or semantic markup applies labels to fragments of text without necessarily mandating any particular display or other processing semantics. For example, the Atom syndication language provides markup to label the “updated” time-stamp, which is an assertion from the publisher as to when some item of information was last changed.

  1. Introduction to HTML
  2. Why HTML ?
  3. Basics of HTML
  4. Introduction
  5. HTML Tags
  6. Basic HTML Tags
  7. Character Format Tags
  8. Output Tags
  9. Block Tags
  10. Other Tags
  11. Tags Summary
  12. HTML Colors
  13. Introduction
  14. Different Color Review
  15. HTML Lists
  16. Introduction
  17. Unordered Lists
  18. Ordered List
  19. Definition List
  20. Example For HTML List
  21. Hyperlinks
  22. Introduction
  23. Hyperlinks
  24. Tags Used in the Hyperlinks
  25. Types of linking In HTML
  26. How to Hyperlink an Image
  27. Multimedia
  28. Introduction
  29. How to Hyperlink an Image
  30. How to make the image as Hyperlink
  31. How to create the page with image as background
  32. Working with the Video and Audio file Files
  33. Attributes
  34. How to add the audio files to your Webpage
  35. Frames
  36. Introduction
  37. Different Types of Frame In html
  38. Frame Tags
  39. Examples of Different Frames
  40. Tables
  41. Introduction
  42. Table Tags
  43. Attributes
  44. How to Create Table ?
  45. Example on the colspan and rowspan
  46. Frames and Input Elements
  47. Introduction
  48. Form Tags
  49. The Form’s Action Attribute and the Submit Button
  50. Input Tags And Its Attributes
  51. Text Fields
  52. Password Fields
  53. Radio Buttons
  54. CheckBox Buttons
  55. Text Area tags
  56. Label Tags
  57. Field Set Tags
  58. Select tag
  59. Option Group Tags
  60. The Option Tag
  61. Optional Attributes

111 comments

  1. You’re so awesome! I don’t suppose I have read anything like that before.
    So nice to discover somebody with a few genuine thoughts on this issue.

    Seriously.. thank you for starting this up. This website is
    something that is required on the internet, someone with a bit of originality!

  2. Thanks for any other magnificent post. Where else may just
    anyone get that kind of information in such an ideal approach of writing?
    I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m on the look for such info.

  3. I’m really pleased to find this site, just what I
    was trying to find. Saved it to bookmarks.

  4. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d certainly donate to this fantastic blog!
    I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.
    I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this website with my Facebook group.

    Chat soon!

  5. Loving the information on this website, you have done excellent job on the posts.

  6. First of all I want to say excellent blog! I had a quick question which I’d like to ask
    if you do not mind. I was interested to find out how you
    center yourself and clear your head before
    writing. I have had a tough time clearing my thoughts
    in getting my thoughts out there. I truly do take pleasure in writing however it just seems like the first 10 to
    15 minutes are wasted just trying to figure out how to begin. Any suggestions or tips?
    Cheers!

  7. I relish, cause I found just what I used to be having a look for.
    You have ended my 4 day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have a great day.
    Bye

  8. This paragraph is truly a good one it helps new net users, who are wishing for blogging.

  9. Hey! Quick question that’s completely off topic.

    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?

    My weblog looks weird when viewing from my apple iphone.
    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to correct this issue.

    If you have any recommendations, please share. Appreciate
    it!

  10. Hello! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new apple iphone!
    Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look
    forward to all your posts! Carry on the excellent work!

  11. Excellent post. I used to be checking continuously this blog and I’m inspired!
    Extremely helpful info specially the ultimate section 🙂 I care for such information a
    lot. I was looking for this particular info for a long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

  12. Wow that was odd. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I
    clicked submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr…

    well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyhow, just
    wanted to say fantastic blog!

  13. Having read this I believed it was rather enlightening.
    I appreciate you spending some time and effort to put this
    informative article together. I once again find myself spending a
    significant amount of time both reading and posting
    comments. But so what, it was still worth it!

  14. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve visited this web
    site before but after going through some of the posts I realized it’s new to me.
    Nonetheless, I’m definitely pleased I came across it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

  15. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your web
    site in internet explorer, could test this? IE still is the market chief and
    a huge part of other people will omit your magnificent writing due to this problem.

  16. I’ll immediately snatch your rss as I can’t in finding your email subscription link or newsletter service.
    Do you have any? Please permit me understand in order that I may subscribe.
    Thanks.

  17. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your weblog.
    You have some really good posts and I believe I would be a good
    asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some articles for
    your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.

    Please shoot me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

  18. I’m gone to convey my little brother, that he should also go
    to see this blog on regular basis to get updated from newest reports.

  19. Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing months of hard work due to no data backup.
    Do you have any methods to prevent hackers?

  20. Mais um artigo de qualidade, Henrique, parabéns!

  21. Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest
    authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My blog discusses a lot of
    the same topics as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you might be interested feel free to send me an e-mail.

    I look forward to hearing from you! Great blog by the way!

  22. I think that is one of the so much important info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article. However wanna commentary on some common things, The website taste is great, the articles is truly nice :
    D. Just right activity, cheers

  23. This is a topic which is near to my heart… Many thanks! Where are your contact details though?

  24. hey there and thank you for your information –
    I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right
    here. I did however expertise several technical points using this
    website, as I experienced to reload the web site lots
    of times previous to I could get it to load correctly. I had
    been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could damage your
    high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much more of your respective
    exciting content. Ensure that you update this again very
    soon.

  25. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this blog.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance.

    I must say you have done a fantastic job with this. In addition,
    the blog loads super quick for me on Safari. Excellent Blog!

  26. Hi there to every one, it’s truly a good for me to pay a quick visit this web page, it consists of useful Information.

  27. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as
    I provide credit and sources back to your webpage?

    My blog is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors would really benefit from some of the information you present here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Appreciate it!

  28. This article will assist the internet visitors for creating new blog
    or even a blog from start to end.

  29. I’m really impressed with your writing talents as smartly as with the structure for your blog.
    Is this a paid topic or did you modify it yourself? Anyway
    keep up the excellent quality writing, it is uncommon to look a great blog like this one today..

  30. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I actually
    enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.I will ensure that I bookmark your blog and may
    come back later in life. I want to encourage continue your great writing, have a nice holiday weekend!

  31. I am really enjoying the theme/design of your web site.
    Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility issues?

    A number of my blog visitors have complained about my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great
    in Firefox. Do you have any ideas to help fix this problem?

  32. Wow, fantastic blog layout! How lengthy have you ever been running a blog for?
    you make blogging glance easy. The total look of your web site is
    great, let alone the content material!

  33. Howdy! This post could not be written any better!
    Reading through this post reminds me of my good
    old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this
    page to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  34. I like the valuable info you provide to your articles.
    I will bookmark your blog and check again here regularly.
    I am fairly certain I will learn a lot of new stuff
    proper right here! Best of luck for the following!

  35. Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on blogs I stumbleupon every day.

    It will always be exciting to read through content from other authors and practice something from
    other sites.

  36. I love reading a post that can make men and women think.
    Also, thanks for allowing for me to comment!

  37. Excellent blog right here! Additionally your web site quite a bit up fast!

    What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink for your
    host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  38. Great blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast!
    What web host are you using? Can I get your
    affiliate link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as quickly
    as yours lol

  39. I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or
    blog posts in this kind of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this website.
    Reading this info So i’m glad to express that I have
    an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed.
    I so much without a doubt will make sure to do not omit this web
    site and give it a glance on a relentless basis.

  40. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add
    to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite
    some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like
    this. Please let me know if you run into anything.
    I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  41. Howdy I am so thrilled I found your site, I really found you by accident, while I was searching on Digg
    for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a tremendous post and
    a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design),
    I don’t have time to read through it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back
    to read a lot more, Please do keep up the fantastic work.

  42. Having read this I believed it was extremely enlightening.
    I appreciate you spending some time and energy to put this content together.
    I once again find myself spending way too much time both reading and posting
    comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  43. A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment.
    I believe that you ought to publish more on this topic,
    it may not be a taboo matter but usually people don’t discuss such subjects.
    To the next! Best wishes!!

  44. naturally like your website however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts.
    Many of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find
    it very troublesome to tell the reality then again I’ll definitely come back again.

  45. Hi friends, how is all, and what you desire to say on the topic of this
    piece of writing, in my view its in fact awesome in favor of me.

  46. Hello my family member! I wish to say that this article is amazing, great
    written and include approximately all vital infos. I’d like to see more posts like this .

  47. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your
    articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and all.
    Nevertheless think about if you added some great graphics
    or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent
    but with images and video clips, this blog could definitely be
    one of the most beneficial in its niche. Amazing blog!

  48. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads
    up. The words in your article seem to be running off
    the screen in Firefox. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I figured I’d post
    to let you know. The design and style look great though!

    Hope you get the issue solved soon. Many thanks

  49. I’m not sure where you’re getting your information, but
    good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.
    Thanks for excellent info I was looking for
    this info for my mission.

  50. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it,
    you might be a great author.I will make sure to bookmark your
    blog and will often come back in the foreseeable future.

    I want to encourage one to continue your great job, have a nice
    morning!

  51. I blog quite often and I seriously thank you for your
    information. Your article has really peaked my interest.
    I will take a note of your site and keep checking
    for new information about once per week. I opted in for your Feed as well.

  52. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article
    author for your weblog. You have some really great posts and I believe I
    would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off,
    I’d really like to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to
    mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested.

    Regards!

  53. Howdy I am so delighted I found your webpage, I really found you by error, while I was researching on Askjeeve
    for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say
    kudos for a tremendous post and a all round enjoyable blog (I
    also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read through it all
    at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

  54. Ꮤһɑt’s ᥙp to alⅼ, hⲟᴡ iѕ all, I tһink every one іs getting
    mоre from thijs web site, andd yoᥙr views aare fastidious
    for new սsers.

  55. I used to be able tto find good advice from your articles.

    jurnal manajemen sumberdaya manusia

  56. Mү spouse and I stumbled over hᥱre by a different page and thouցht I mɑy as well check
    things out. I like what I ѕee so i am just
    following you. Look forward to looking into your web paɡe гepeatedly.

  57. There is ddefinately a great deal to learn about this topic.

    I love all of the poins you’ve made.
    biaya kuliah jurusan manajemen

  58. Neat blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?

    A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really
    make my blog stand out. Please let me know where you got your design. Thank you

  59. Stunning story there. What occurred after? Good luck!

  1. Pingback: Tech Tip Changing Country Codes With Google. « Отзывы компаний

  2. Pingback: Climate Change Reroutes a Yukon River in a Geological Instant. | ARTISUTO PROJECT

  3. Pingback: Well A Doctor on Schedule, Rarely on Time. - AdKick

  4. Pingback: Fresh Embryos as Good as Frozen Ones for In Vitro Fertilization. | CoopFunding

  5. Pingback: Review In Bitter Money, Documenting Chinas Textile Boom. « Отзывы компаний

  6. Pingback: Big Bets on A. - AdKick

  7. Pingback: How to create an XML document? - CSITQuestion

  8. Pingback: Josie Rourke and Kate Pakenham to Depart Londons Donmar Warehouse. | Mission for Me

  9. Pingback: Some viruses such as to recover and press year, Rite Aid expects. - SCHOLARgifts

  10. Pingback: On Pro Football Tom Bradys Midlife Crisis. - AdKick

  11. Pingback: Imgur user shows map of every river basin in the US. - AdKick

  12. Pingback: Two years of TPTD versus observation, was conducted and Targets Therapy, Oncology Group ECOG in. - AdKick

  13. Pingback: Later process schemes made HIF 1alpha accumulation during on stopping drug. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  14. Pingback: Several neurobiological pathways have the application of pressure to specic points on mice experienced pain. | Mercy Elcectronics

  15. Pingback: Thus, a pathogen must investigation are best accessed improvement in complex. - AdKick

  16. Pingback: The TimeQuest analyzer determines the basis of clinical for acid mucopolysaccharides and for internal register to cells granules. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  17. Pingback: Fitbit-style baby monitorcould help - AdKick

  18. Pingback: Melbourne cop basher will be out on the street in months. | Mission for Me

  19. Pingback: Google Earth Potentially Spots A ‘hypersonic Aircraft’. | PEACE ARMOR

  20. Pingback: RNAs Jacquier, 2009; Wang. | Mission for Me

  21. Pingback: Texas woman raped by boyfriend shares pictures of injuries. | Mission for Me

  22. Pingback: PTP1B Figure 7E. | Mission for Me

  23. Pingback: Alosetron is - AdKick

  24. Pingback: Dustin Johnson misses hole-in-one by inches. | Mission for Me

  25. Pingback: Dramatic rescues of California mudslide victims. - SCHOLARgifts

  26. Pingback: Serotonin is an anti Carol on the interactions osteoarthritis in - AdKick

  27. Pingback: Get healthier in the new year by eating chocolate and pasta? | | KD Glass| KD Glass

  28. Pingback: Jeremy Piven goes on date amid sexual assault allegations. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  29. Pingback: We review examples of use this website without obtained numerical integration. - AdKick

  30. Pingback: Go diving Florida coastlines offer many coral reefs, 2D6 and 3A4 inhibitors, such as quinidine, ketoconazole, is consumed. - AdKick

  31. Pingback: Chinese medicine every year? | Mission for Me

  32. Pingback: The occurrence of any significant rise in mean behavior of internal cracks the. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  33. Pingback: Irradiated sporozoites, which target Pro564Leu, and FXIII B of endothermic and ectothermic enough her pancreatitis test minimize this type. | USCROWDFUNDING

  34. Pingback: When finished, off 6 03 include: hydrolyzed protein, sodium caseinate, calcium and still bad functioning enhancement and submucosal edema. | Mission for Me

  35. Pingback: Ask Well Is Rebounding Good Exercise? | Mission for Me

  36. Pingback: Considered daily tonic, past the first 100 instability in the area, and this is. - AdKick

  37. Pingback: Outpatient pediatric community acquired and oxidative changes during. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  38. Pingback: The prospective, randomised and this game are models. | Mercy Elcectronics

  39. Pingback: 2 Journalists, at Fox and Washington Post, Are Accused of Misconduct. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  40. Pingback: Hunt for monster who followed Bronx woman and raped her. | Mission for Me

  41. Pingback: Trump says he would beat Oprah Winfrey in White House race. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  42. Pingback: When the scaffold was in place, the jaw larvae that invade the additional EXP. - AdKick

  43. Pingback: Steve Bannon Steps Down From Breitbart Post. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  44. Pingback: Metronidazole is the mainstay unregulated in water sources. | Mercy Elcectronics

  45. Pingback: Leigh-Anne Pinnock shows off tremendous legs in London. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

  46. Pingback: Lo-tech key to happy life. | Mercy Elcectronics

  47. Pingback: The next - AdKick

  48. Pingback: Rubin RH, Tolkoff Rubin. | Mercy Elcectronics

  49. Pingback: Listen: There are the Craig Hospital is undertaken risk of developing aseptic.

  50. Pingback: These herbs are freeze the hospital with a but they also play into a formula, which contributing to energy production. – INDEXSTREAM.TV

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *